Banker och internet
Särskilt om kundaktiverade betalningsinstruktioner
Datum för disputation: fredagen den 15 december 2006
Fakultetsopponent: docent Göran Millqvist, Stockholm universitet, Sverige
I avhandlingen behandlas de rättsregler som kan tillämpas när banker erbjuder kunder att kommunicera via Internet och lämna betalningsinstruktioner avseende kredittransfereringar på detta sätt. Den här typen av banktjänster benämns i avhandlingen Internet Banking. Betalningar och betalningsinstruktioner är inget nytt fenomen men i avhandlingen behandlas de utifrån ett elektroniskt perspektiv.
Ämnet för avhandlingen är bank-kund förhållandet utifrån ett svenskt perspektiv. I avhandlingen behandlas särskilt tre frågor. För det första, hur utformas den förmögenhetsrättsliga regleringen av betalningsinstruktioner? För det andra, hur är den förmögenhetsrättsliga regleringen av betalningsinstruktioner initierade via Internet utformad? För det tredje, har det någon rättslig betydelse att en betalningsavsändare på egen hand elektroniskt initierar kredittransfereringar i bankens dator? En övergripande fråga är huruvida en bank utsätter sig för en större risk när man tillåter att kommunikationen sker via Internet.
This thesis deals with legal issues arisen from consumer-activated payment orders, regarding credit transfers, which are initiated via the Internet under an agreement (about using Internet-services) previously entered into between the bank and the payer (or the originator). This Internet-service is in the thesis called Internet banking. More and more customers, both consumers and others, activate such payment orders on-line. Payments or payment orders are not a new phenomenon but in the thesis they are dealt with from an electronic perspective.
The thesis? subject matter is the bank-customer relationship from a Swedish private law perspective. Three questions are of central concern for this thesis. Firstly, how is the private law regulation regarding payment orders made? Secondly, what is the law of substance regarding payment orders initiated via the Internet? Finally, what legal implications, if any, occur when a payment order is initiated electronically via the Internet? The thesis examines different aspects of the bank-customer relationship. One aspect is, from a customer?s point of view, the right to use Internet-services. Another aspect is payment by mistake but also the right of revocation or countermand. Yet another aspect is the bank?s obligations as an intermediary as regards to payment orders. Furthermore, the thesis examines how to produce information generated electronically as evidence in a court of law. An overall question in the thesis is whether banks are subject to a higher degree of risk when using the Internet as a communication channel. In the thesis it is argued, the answer to that question is no.
A Legal Research on Its Theoretical Aspects, Practices from Germany, the United States of America, France, Vietnam, and Recommendations for Vietnam
Datum för disputation: måndagen den 6 november 2006
Fakultetsopponent: professor Joakim Nergelius, Örebro universitet, Sverige
Ämne: konstitutionell rätt
It is widely recognized that judicial independence is an indispensable value of a modern democracy. When a country wishes to adopt this value, questions may arise, such as what it is and how to develop it properly?
This thesis explores the issue of judicial independence in two aspects: theoretical and practical. For the theoretical aspect, it first examines the rule of law and protection of human rights as the requirements for judicial independence in a country. Other theoretical questions of judicial independence are also discussed, such as its definition, limitations, and main guaranteeing measures. To support theoretical arguments in the thesis, an examination of international and regional measures regarding judicial independence is presented. In addition, full texts of important international documents on judicial independence are reproduced in one of the Appendixes.
For the practical aspect, the thesis investigates the situation of judicial independence in four countries: Germany, the United States of America, France and Vietnam. The main question of this investigation is: How does judicial independence work in those countries? Detailed introduction to those countries? court systems is provided.
Theoretical arguments and analyses on the practical conditions of judicial independence in Vietnam are the bases for the solutions recommended at the end of the thesis to improve the independence of Vietnamese courts and judges. Practices of judicial independence in the other three countries are also consulted for suitable experiences.
Institutionalisation of Corporate Social Responsibilities
Synergies between the Practice of Leading Multinationel Enterprises and Human Rights Law/Policy
Datum för disputation: fredagen den 10 februari 2006
Fakultetsopponent: förste amanuensis, docent Marius Emberland, Osla universitet, Norge
Ämne: mänskliga rättigheter
The study accounts for recent developments in corporate voluntarism and assesses the evolving corporate social responsibility (CSR) regime. CSR proposes a new norm for how large businesses should approach complexity in a modern economy. The first chapter anchors the CSR discussion in a company law and corporate governance context. Emphasis is placed on managerial duties and the British Review of Company Law which prompts directors to employ a longer term and more relationship-inclusive way of pursuing the corporate self-interest. The next chapter tracks how this norm has fared in business ethics by contrasting Milton Friedman´s analysis with writings in stakeholder theory. The aim is to highlight valid insights produced by each camp and identify the blind spots this debate has left. Chapter 4 describes steps taken by leading businesses and their stakeholders in an attempt to reconcile profitability with social responsibilities. The emphasis is on emerging best practices in implementing and demonstrating CSR; proactive businesses specify the new norm by offering examples and helping build necessary infrastructure. Chapter 5 presents laws that can strengthen the emerging CSR regime; examples are taken from the fields of corporate governance, environmental protection, criminal law, and social disclosure. The next chapter draws on regulatory theory to explain the regulations discussed in chapter 5. Law aims to alter corporate behaviour but, by not using pure deterrence, the causality is complex; therefore a number of intermediate variables are identified. Chapter 7 is concerned with the evolution of the CSR regime and highlights the importance of corporate transparency, stakeholder participation, and due process as a way to legitimize corporate discretion. Chapter 8 concludes by taking a human rights perspective on CSR where the concept of accountability is central. The CSR regime does not exclude law, but uses also policies, standardization, guidelines, and good industry practice to activate intermediary variables. This regime does not eradicate the roles of states, but is more decentralized as it involves both public and private actors.